Cardiovascular surgery can make up for problems in the heart that other practices could not fix or could not use. Difficulties that cardiovascular surgery can fix include: repairing damaged or abnormal structures; replacing or repairing valves that regulate blood flow in the heart’s chambers; implanting devices to maintain blood flow and heart function or normalize heart rhythm; treating coronary disease and heart failure; replacing the damaged heart with a donor’s heart; and controlling abnormal heart rhythms.

In this article, we will provide you with more information about this procedure and what the most common conditions are. 



What conditions does cardiovascular surgery treat?

The following are the most common conditions treated by cardiovascular surgery:

  • Coronary artery disease
  • Aortic Stenosis
  • Mitral insufficiency
  • Mitral Stenosis
  • Arteriosclerosis

Coronary artery disease is a type of heart condition that arises when the arteries of the heart are unable to provide enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Coronary artery disease is usually caused by the buildup of plaque within the lining of the larger coronary arteries. This clumping can totally or partially block the flow of blood in the large arteries of the heart. It can also be caused by disease or injury that affects the functioning of the arteries in the heart.

Aortic stenosis is a narrowing of the heart’s aortic valve. This narrowing does not allow the valve to open fully, which obstructs or decreases blood flow from the heart to the aorta, the body’s main artery, and to the entire body. 

When blood flow through the aortic valve is blocked or decreased, the heart must work harder than normal to pump blood out of the body. Over time, this increased workload limits the amount of blood the heart can pump, resulting in symptoms and possible weakening of the heart muscle. Depending on the severity, surgery may be needed to repair or replace the valve.

Mitral insufficiency occurs when the flaps (leaflets) of the mitral valve do not close properly, causing blood to leak back into the left atrium. This usually occurs when the leaflets protrude, a condition called “mitral valve prolapse.

Mitral stenosis is when the mitral valve of the heart becomes narrowed. This abnormal valve does not open properly, preventing blood flow to the heart’s main pumping chamber. Among other difficulties, mitral stenosis can cause shortness of breath and fatigue. The main cause of mitral stenosis is an infection called “rheumatic fever,” which is linked to streptococcal infections. Rheumatic fever can cause scarring of the mitral valve.

Atherosclerosis is caused when the blood vessels, which carry nutrients and oxygen from the heart to the rest of the body, become stiff and thick and can restrict blood flow to tissues and organs. Healthy arteries are elastic and flexible, but as time passes, the walls can harden. 

Atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis and refers to the accumulation of cholesterol, fats, and other substances on and within the artery walls, which can restrict blood flow.



What treatments and procedures are performed by cardiovascular surgery?

The following are the most common treatments and procedures performed through cardiovascular surgery:

  • Open-heart surgery
  • Coronary Bypass surgery
  • Pacemaker
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Angioplasty

Open-heart surgery is a procedure that involves opening the heart and chest. An extracorporeal circulation system that performs the function of the lungs and heart throughout the procedure. The heart stops while it is connected to this device. This machine carries blood through the body, provides oxygen to the blood, and removes carbon dioxide. Surgeries performed in open-heart surgery can be of the myocardium, valves, arteries or aorta and other major arteries linked to the heart.

Coronary bypass surgery creates a new path for blood to flow to the heart. The doctor takes a healthy section of an artery from your wrist or chest or a vein from your leg. He then attaches it to the coronary artery below and above the blocked or narrowed area. This makes it possible for blood to bypass the blockage and continue its path. Some patients need several bypasses.

The surgery is often excellent. Many patients have no further symptoms for many years. There is a possibility that further surgery may be needed at a later date if blockages form in the grafted veins or arteries or in arteries that were not previously blocked.

The pacemaker is a tiny device that is inserted under the skin of the chest to control the heartbeat. It is used to make the heart beat more regularly, particularly if the heartbeat is slow. A surgical procedure is required to implant a pacemaker.

Deep vein thrombosis, or deep phlebothrombosis, occurs when a blood clot appears in one or more deep veins of the body, commonly in the legs. It can cause swelling or pain in the legs, but can also occur without symptoms. 

This disease can occur if you have certain conditions that impair the way your blood clots. It can also arise if the patient does not move for a long time, for example, after an accident or surgery, or when confined to a bed. Deep vein thrombosis is a serious disorder because blood clots that form in the veins can break loose, move through the bloodstream, and end up lodging in the lungs, hindering blood flow.

Angioplasty is a practice to open blocked or narrowed blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. These blood vessels are called the coronary arteries. 

One type of procedure used in angioplasty is coronary artery stenting. This is a small metal mesh tube that allows an artery in the heart to be expanded.


Now you know what Cardiovascular Surgery is and what the most common procedures are. If you or a family member has a related disease and want highly professional medical care, request information here

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